Caterpillars of the
World - Singapore
Family - NYMPHALIDAE
Tribe - LIMENITIDINI
There are 9 species in the genus
Moduza, all found in the Oriental
region. They are closely related to the genera
Limenitis and Athyma.
Moduza procris is the commonest and
most widespread species in the genus, being found in India, Sri
Lanka, Nepal, Myanmar, Thailand, the Philippines, West Malaysia,
Sumatra, Sarawak, Brunei, Sabah, Kalimantan and Java.
This species is found in heavily forested areas
which receive high levels of rainfall, at elevations between sea
level and about 400 metres.
foodplants are various members of the Rubiaceae including
Stephegyne and Timonias.
rests near the tip of a leaf, on the midrib, behind a barrier it has
constructed from a chain of its droppings. Studies have demonstrated
that these "frass chains" are an effective deterrent to ants, which
appear to be dissuaded from crossing by toxins in the droppings.
Commanders have a
swift and skittish flight with rapid wing beats alternating with
spurts of smooth gliding. They are powerful on the wing, but usually
only fly for short distances at a time.
Both sexes will
visit herbaceous flowers, bushes and flowering trees for nectar.
bask on river beaches and boulders. They are strongly attracted to
urine soaked ground where they may spend an entire day, with bouts
of feeding broken by periods of resting or basking.
Taman Negara, West Malaysia