Butterflies of the Indian subcontinent
Blue Tiger
Tirumala limniace  CRAMER, 1775
subfamily - DANAINAE
Tirumala limniace, Chilapata, West Bengal, India  Adrian Hoskins
The subfamily Danainae, which includes the Monarchs & Tigers, Nymphs and Crows, comprises of about 190 species worldwide.
The genus Tirumala is structurally closer to Danaus than to the other similarly marked genera i.e. Ideopsis and Parantica.
There are 10 Tirumala species, 2 of which occur in Africa, with the remainder distributed across various parts of tropical and sub-tropical Asia, although one species hamata has a range extending from Arabia to Australia.
Tirumala limniace is a widespread species, found from Afghanistan to the Philippines, and south to Sulawesi, Java, Bali and Timor. It is fairly common in India, Sri Lanka, lowland Nepal, Burma and Thailand, but is is rare on the Malay peninsula, and absent from Sumatra and Borneo.
This species occurs in many habitats ranging from Acacia scrub to dry deciduous woodlands, humid sub-tropical forests, gardens and parks at altitudes between sea level and about 300m.
The larval foodplants include Dreggea, Heterostemma, Asclepias, Calotropis, Marsdenia, Crotalaria, Hoya and Epibaterium.
Adult behaviour

The butterflies are usually encountered singly or in two's and three's. They have a slow undulating flight, with fairly shallow wing beats, and patrol flowery areas.

Tirumala limniace, female, Weligaththa, Sri Lanka  Adrian Hoskins



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