Mexico, USA & Canada
Family - NYMPHALIDAE
Tribe - LIMENITIDINI
Adelpha eulalia male, Huachuca,
© Frank Model
are colloquially known as "Sisters". In terms of appearance they are
reminiscent of the White Admirals ( Limenitis
) of Eurasia, and share with them a fondness for flitting gracefully
around the lower branches of trees in the dappled sunlight of the
There are 85 Adelpha
species, distributed variously across Central and South America. The
majority have a dark brown ground colour, with white bands and
orange apical markings. The only species found north of Mexico is
eulalia. It was formerly thought to be
a subspecies of Limenitis bredowii.
occurs in California, south Colorado, Utah, Nevada, New Mexico and
Texas. Beyond the USA it is found in Mexico and Guatemala.
This species is found in oak forest, mainly in river valleys.
is yellowish-green with myriads of tiny hexagonal depressions, and
short spiky aeropyles arising at the intersections. It is laid
singly on leaves of oaks Quercus (
young caterpillar sits at the end of a leaf, facing outwards, and
nibbles away either side of the midrib, leaving just the vein
jutting out. It silks the projecting vein and attaches a chain of
frass to it. The larva can rest in safety at the tip of this perch,
protected from marauding ants which find it impossible to traverse
the frass chain to reach it. Prior to hibernation the larva silks
its leaf to the oak stem to prevent the leaf from falling during the
fully grown the larva is either green or brown, and has six pairs of
long thorny brown dorsal spikes. When at rest it adopts a hunched
posture, with the thoracic segments arched, and the tail raised in
the air. The pupa is pale brown with silver spots. It has lateral
projections and prominent dorsal and thoracic keels. The overall
impression is of a dead twisted leaf hanging from a twig.
Males commonly imbibe mineralised
moisture from rocks, boulders or soil. Both sexes imbibe at sap runs
on tree trunks. The paler females are normally only seen feeding at
aphid secretions on leaves.