Mexico, USA & Canada
Family - NYMPHALIDAE
subfamily - BIBLIDINAE
Tribe - EPICALIINI
subtribe - EPICALIINA
© Adrian Hoskins
Catonephele contains 11 species, with
wingspans of circa 65-80mm. The males are dark brown on the
upperside with dazzling reflective orange patches which vary in size
and shape from species to species.
are entirely different in appearance. In most species they have dark
brown wings marked with linear rows of cream spots. The female of
numilia however has a large cream patch
in the median area of the forewing, and has the basal and
submarginal areas of the hindwings deep red.
sexes of all species have cryptic undersides in shades of brown.
occurs from Mexico to Peru.
© Adrian Hoskins
This species breeds in rainforest and humid deciduous forest at
altitudes between 0-1000m.
The egg is barrel-shaped, white, and laid singly
on the foliage of Alchornea (
fully grown caterpillar is green mottled with white spots. It is
adorned with whorled orange spikes along the back, and green spikes
along the sides. The pupa is green with brown or silvery wing pads.
It is attached by the cremaster to leaves, with the body projecting
butterflies are usually encountered singly. Males perch on tree trunks
and rock faces, often in a head-downwards posture. They also bask on
foliage or on fallen branches in light gaps, often less than a metre
above ground level. Males often imbibe
mineral-rich moisture from damp earth along forest tracks and roads.
If alarmed they fly up and spend a few moments circling cautiously,
but soon resettle close to their original position.
are scarcer, and usually seen when searching for oviposition sites
along forest trails. They can occasionally be seen basking on sunlit