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Trip Report
Butterfly-watching Holidays
Brazil
August 2006
a non-profit small group tour organised and led by Adrian Hoskins

This tour was limited to 4 participants to minimise trampling at the mud holes, and to make life easier for photographers on the narrow trails. 

After our long and very tiring flight from London via Dallas and Sao Paulo to Cuiaba, we drove to a city hotel for a good night's rest. The following morning we transferred to the domestic airport for our flight to Alta Floresta, where we had lunch, and then drove< to the jetty on the Rio Teles Peres. From there we had a short boat journey to our lodge on the Rio Cristalino. 

Rio Cristalino reaffirmed it's standing as the most productive butterfly site I have visited in the neotropics. As on our previous visit we had an excellent guide / boatman, who very helpfully baited tree-trunks with banana and fish, which were both efficient at attracting many butterflies.

We saw many Satyrines, Lycaenids and Riodinids as we walked the trails, and several magnificent Nymphalids, including a gorgeous male Hamadryas velutina which basked on a tree trunk. The most productive area however was the peccary wallow, which attracted hordes of Nymphalids, and thankfully on this occasion did not attract the swarms of sweat bees, wasps and hoverflies that were so troublesome the previous year. There were hordes of beautiful species at the wallow including the stunning red and black Siderone galanthis, several Adelpha sp, a Methona mimicking Dismorphiine - Patia orise, and the brilliant metallic green metalmark Caria mantinea. 

The trails radiating from the lodge were particularly good for Satyrines, producing Haetera pierella, several Pierella species, and a variety of Euptychia / Cissia. The nicest Satyrines however were the wonderful dead-leaf mimics Taygetis angulosa and Taygetis mermeria. Brassolines included 3 species of Caligo Owl butterflies, Catoblepia berecynthia, and Opoptera< aorsa. Other Nymphalids included dazzling Catonephele and Nessaea species, and the lovely Hamadryas chloe. Among the smaller species were the metallic blue Mesosemia marisa, and the green Lycaenid Arcas imperialis, which periodically plopped down from the trees to land on low foliage.

As on our previous trip, the Sarota species attracted a lot of attention. They appeared early in the mornings at the edge of a glade, buzzing in tight circles around the tops of banana trees, behaving just like houseflies. They occasionally settled, displaying their undersides, resplendent in dark red with orange and metallic blue markings. I pondered about how such amazing beauty and intricate patterning could have evolved, and what purpose it might serve. Why such beauty in such a tiny insect ?

A full moon at the time of our visit greatly reduced the number of moths attracted to UV light at the moth sheet, but one small species attracted a lot of attention - a metallic green moth with strange bell-shaped wings. Other insects at the moth sheet includes the metalmark Anteos renaldus, a huge lantern bug, and praying mantises.

On several occasions we went by longboat to explore various trails and lagoons, and to visit the large island at the mouth of the Rio Cristalino. Each site produced butterfly species that were new to us, and each river journey provided us with sightings of beautiful kingfishers. The bird which excited us most however was the very beautiful and graceful Capped Heron, which we saw on 3 occasions. Tapirs, which we had seen several times on our first tour in 2005, were not seen on this tour.

Our most memorable encounter was with a gigantic Anaconda. One of our guides had discovered it the previous day, and took us to the spot. With some trepidation we clambered up the bank of the river, and found the huge snake staring straight at us from a distance of less than 2 metres. Luckily for us it had recently eaten, it's belly greatly distended by it's previous meal, probably a Capybara or Giant River Otter, both of which we saw frequently on the river. We estimated the snake to be 8 metres long !

Species recorded at Rio Cristalino in August 2006.
All species listed below were identified by Adrian Hoskins and Tony Hoare from photographs, using the d'Abrera volumes, Lewis, Smart, DeVries, Canals, Neild etc. In cases where doubts remained, images were e-mailed to taxonomists specialising in the relevant families, including Andrew Neild, Jason Hall, Keith Willmott, Curtis Callaghan, Robert Robbins, Jorge Bizzaro, Andy Warren and Gerardo Lamas. Nomenclature follows Lamas, 2004.

xFamily

subfamily

Genus

species

Hesperiidae

Hesperiinae

Aides

duma

Hesperiidae

Hesperiinae

Callimormus

radiola

Hesperiidae

Hesperiinae

Decinea

percosius

Hesperiidae

Hesperiinae

Dubiella

dubius

Hesperiidae

Hesperiinae

Panoquina

evadnes

Hesperiidae

Hesperiinae

Panoquina

fusina

Hesperiidae

Hesperiinae

Parphorus

decora

Hesperiidae

Hesperiinae

Parphorus

storax

Hesperiidae

Hesperiinae

Pellicia

vecina

Hesperiidae

Hesperiinae

Phanes

aletes

Hesperiidae

Hesperiinae

Polites

vibex

Hesperiidae

Hesperiinae

Pyrrhopygopsis

romula

Hesperiidae

Hesperiinae

Saliana

nr. longirostris

Hesperiidae

Hesperiinae

Tirynthia

conflua

Hesperiidae

Hesperiinae

Vehilius

stictomenes

Hesperiidae

Hesperiinae

Zenis

jebus

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Achlyodes

busirus

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Achlyodes

mithridates

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Antigonus

liborius

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Astraptes

anaphus

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Astraptes

fulgerator

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Bolla

atahuallpai

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Bolla

cupreiceps

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Bungalotis

astylos

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Celaenorrhinus

monartus

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Camptopleura

theramenes

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Carrhenes

bamba

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Cycloglypha

thrasibulus

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Cycloglypha

tisias

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Cyclosemia

herennius

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Ebrietas

anacreon

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Gorgythion

alcandra

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Grais

stigmaticus

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Helias

phalaenoides

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Heliopetes

petrus

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Hyalothyrus

infernalis

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Hyalothyrus

leucomelas

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Milanion

leucaspis

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Milanion

hemes

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Mylon

maimon

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Pellicia

vecina

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Polyctor

tensa

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Polythrix

auginus

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Polythrix

octomaculata

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Porphyrogenes

vulpecula

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Pyrgus

oileus

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Pythonides

jovianus

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Sostrata

festiva

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Telemiades

avitus

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Telemiades

delalanda

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Urbanus

doryssus

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Urbanus

simplicius

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Urbanus

virescens

Hesperiidae

Pyrrhopyginae

Croniades

pieria

Hesperiidae

Pyrrhopyginae

Jemadia

hewitsonii

Hesperiidae

Pyrrhopyginae

Jemadia

hospita

Hesperiidae

Pyrrhopyginae

Jemadia

sosia

Hesperiidae

Pyrrhopyginae

Parelbella

ahira

Hesperiidae

Pyrrhopyginae

Pyrrhopyge

phidias

Hesperiidae

Pyrrhopyginae

Pyrrhopyge

proculus

Lycaenidae

Polyommatinae

Hemiargus

hanno

Lycaenidae

Polyommatinae

Leptotes

cassius

Lycaenidae

Theclinae

Arawacus

separata

Lycaenidae

Theclinae

Arcas

imperialis

Lycaenidae

Theclinae

Calycopis

nr caulonia

Lycaenidae

Theclinae

Celmia

celmus

Lycaenidae

Theclinae

Chalybis

hassan

Lycaenidae

Theclinae

Electrostrymon

mathewi

Lycaenidae

Theclinae

Iaspis

castitas

Lycaenidae

Theclinae

Janthecla

rocena

Lycaenidae

Theclinae

Janthecla

sista

Lycaenidae

Theclinae

Michaelus

ira

Lycaenidae

Theclinae

Ministrymon

zilda

Lycaenidae

Theclinae

Mithras

nautes

Lycaenidae

Theclinae

Ocaria

ocrisia

Lycaenidae

Theclinae

Ocaria

thales

Lycaenidae

Theclinae

Olynthus

essus

Lycaenidae

Theclinae

Ostrinotes

tarena

Lycaenidae

Theclinae

Panthiades

bitias

Lycaenidae

Theclinae

Rekoa

stagira

Lycaenidae

Theclinae

Symbiopsis

sp. nov

Lycaenidae

Theclinae

Theclopsis

lydus

Lycaenidae

Theclinae

Theritas

hemon

Lycaenidae

Theclinae

Thestius

pholeus

Lycaenidae

Theclinae

Tmolus

echion

Nymphalidae

Apaturinae

Doxocopa

agathina

Nymphalidae

Apaturinae

Doxocopa

lavinia

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Callicore

astarte

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Callicore

cynosura

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Callicore

hystaspes

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Callicore

texa

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Catonephele

acontius

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Catonephele

numilia

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Diaethria

candrena

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Diaethria

clymena

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Dynamine

agacles

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Dynamine

arene

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Dynamine

theseus

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Ectima

iona

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Eunica

pusilla

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Hamadryas

amphinome

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Hamadryas

chloe

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Hamadryas

februa

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Hamadryas

feronia

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Hamadryas

laodamia

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Hamadryas

velutina

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Marpesia

berania

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Marpesia

chiron

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Marpesia

furcula

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Marpesia

orsilochus

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Marpesia

petreus

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Marpesia

themistocles

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Nessaea

obrinus

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Nica

flavilla

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Peria

lamis

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Pyrrhogyra

amphiro

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Pyrrhogyra

crameri

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Temenis

laothoe

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Temenis

pulchra

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Vila

emilia

Nymphalidae

Charaxinae

Agrias

claudina

Nymphalidae

Charaxinae

Archaeoprepona

demophon

Nymphalidae

Charaxinae

Archaeoprepona

demophoon

Nymphalidae

Charaxinae

Consul

fabius

Nymphalidae

Charaxinae

Fountainea

ryphea

Nymphalidae

Charaxinae

Memphis

moruus

Nymphalidae

Charaxinae

Siderone

galanthis

Nymphalidae

Danainae

Lycorea

halia

Nymphalidae

Heliconiinae

Dryas

iulia

Nymphalidae

Heliconiinae

Eueides

aliphera

Nymphalidae

Heliconiinae

Heliconius

burneyi

Nymphalidae

Heliconiinae

Heliconius

erato

Nymphalidae

Heliconiinae

Heliconius

sara

Nymphalidae

Heliconiinae

Heliconius

wallacei

Nymphalidae

Heliconiinae

Philaethria

dido

Nymphalidae

Ithomiinae

Aeria

elara

Nymphalidae

Ithomiinae

Callithomia

lenea

Nymphalidae

Limenitidinae

Adelpha

basiloides

Nymphalidae

Limenitidinae

Adelpha

boeotia

Nymphalidae

Limenitidinae

Adelpha

cocala

Nymphalidae

Limenitidinae

Adelpha

epione

Nymphalidae

Limenitidinae

Adelpha

erotia

Nymphalidae

Limenitidinae

Adelpha

iphiclus

Nymphalidae

Limenitidinae

Adelpha

mesentina

Nymphalidae

Limenitidinae

Adelpha

messana

Nymphalidae

Limenitidinae

Adelpha

serpa

Nymphalidae

Limenitidinae

Adelpha

thesprotia

Nymphalidae

Limenitidinae

Adelpha

thoasa

Nymphalidae

Morphinae

Antirrhea

philaretes

Nymphalidae

Morphinae

Antirrhea

taygetina

Nymphalidae

Morphinae

Bia

actorion

Nymphalidae

Morphinae

Caligo

brasiliensis

Nymphalidae

Morphinae

Caligo

eurilochus

Nymphalidae

Morphinae

Caligo

idomeneus

Nymphalidae

Morphinae

Caligo

illioneus

Nymphalidae

Morphinae

Catoblepia

berecynthia

Nymphalidae

Morphinae

Catoblepia

soranus

Nymphalidae

Morphinae

Eryphanis

automedon

Nymphalidae

Morphinae

Morpho

achilles

Nymphalidae

Morphinae

Morpho

deidamia

Nymphalidae

Morphinae

Morpho

helenor

Nymphalidae

Morphinae

Morpho

meneleus

Nymphalidae

Morphinae

Morpho

rhetenor

Nymphalidae

Morphinae

Opoptera

aorsa

Nymphalidae

Morphinae

Opsiphanes

cassiae

Nymphalidae

Morphinae

Opsiphanes

invirae

Nymphalidae

Nymphalinae

Anartia

amathea

Nymphalidae

Nymphalinae

Baeotus

beotus

Nymphalidae

Nymphalinae

Baeotus

deucalion

Nymphalidae

Nymphalinae

Baeotus

japetus

Nymphalidae

Nymphalinae

Colobura

annulata

Nymphalidae

Nymphalinae

Colobura

dirce

Nymphalidae

Nymphalinae

Eresia

clio

Nymphalidae

Nymphalinae

Historis

odius

Nymphalidae

Nymphalinae

Hypanartia

lethe

Nymphalidae

Nymphalinae

Ortilia

gentina

Nymphalidae

Nymphalinae

Siproeta

stelenes

Nymphalidae

Nymphalinae

Tegosa

claudina

Nymphalidae

Nymphalinae

Telenassa

teletusa

Nymphalidae

Nymphalinae

Tigridia

acesta

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Amphidecta

calliomma

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Caeruleuptychia

brixius

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Caeruleuptychia

coelestis

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Chloreuptychia

agatha

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Chloreuptychia

arnaca

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Chloreuptychia

herseis

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Cissia

myncea

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Cissia

penelope

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Cissia

terrestris

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Cissia

pompilia

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Euptychia

mollina

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Euptychia

westwoodi

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Haetera

piera

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Harjesia

griseola

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Hermeuptychia

hermes

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Magneuptychia

iris

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Magneuptychia

mimas

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Magneuptychia

ocypete

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Pareuptychia

ocirrhoe

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Pierella

hyalinus

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Pierella

lamia

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Pierella

lena

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Posttaygetis

penelea

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Pseudodebis

valentina

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Taygetis

angulosa

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Taygetis

cleopatra

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Taygetis

laches

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Taygetis

mermeria

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Taygetis

rufomarginata

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Taygetis

ypthima

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Taygetomorpha

celia

Papilionidae

Papilioninae

Battus

crassus

Papilionidae

Papilioninae

Battus

lycidas

Papilionidae

Papilioninae

Heraclides

astyalus

Papilionidae

Papilioninae

Heraclides

torquatus

Papilionidae

Papilioninae

Mimoides

ariarathes

Papilionidae

Papilioninae

Mimoides

euryleon

Papilionidae

Papilioninae

Mimoides

pausanias

Papilionidae

Papilioninae

Parides

sesostris

Papilionidae

Papilioninae

Protographium

agesilaus

Pieridae

Coliadinae

Anteos

menippe

Pieridae

Coliadinae

Aphrissa

statira

Pieridae

Coliadinae

Eurema

albula

Pieridae

Coliadinae

Eurema

elathea

Pieridae

Coliadinae

Leucidia

elvina

Pieridae

Coliadinae

Phoebis

argante

Pieridae

Coliadinae

Phoebis

sennae

Pieridae

Coliadinae

Pyrisitia

venusta

Pieridae

Coliadinae

Rhabdodryas

trite

Pieridae

Dismorphiinae

Enantia

lina

Pieridae

Dismorphiinae

Patia

orise

Pieridae

Pierinae

Glutophrissa

drusilla

Pieridae

Pierinae

Melete

lycimnia

Riodinidae

Euselasiinae

Euselasia

alcmena

Riodinidae

Euselasiinae

Euselasia

angulata

Riodinidae

Euselasiinae

Euselasia

clesa

Riodinidae

Euselasiinae

Euselasia

clithra

Riodinidae

Euselasiinae

Euselasia

euhemerus

Riodinidae

Euselasiinae

Euselasia

euriteus

Riodinidae

Euselasiinae

Euselasia

phedica

Riodinidae

Euselasiinae

Euselasia

toppini

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Alesa

lipara

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Amarynthis

meneria

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Ancyluris

meliboeus

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Anteros

renaldus

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Argyrogrammana

sticheli

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Aricoris

epulus

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Calospila

emylius

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Caria

castalia

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Caria

mantinea

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Caria

trochilus

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Chalodetta

theodora

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Detritivora

cleonus

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Detritivora

gynaea

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Echenais

thelephus

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Echydna

punctata

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Emesis

eurydice

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Emesis

fastidiosa

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Emesis

lucinda

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Emesis

mandana

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Emesis

ocypore

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Emesis

temesa

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Eurybia

franciscana

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Eurybia

molochina

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Eurybia

nicaeus

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Lasaia

agesilas

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Lasaia

arsis

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Lemonias

zygia

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Mesene

epaphus

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Mesene

phareus

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Mesosemia

menoetes

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Mesosemia

minos

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Mesosemia

nyctea

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Monethe

albertus

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Notheme

erota

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Nymphidium

caricae

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Nymphidium

leucosia

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Nymphidium

olinda

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Parcella

amarynthina

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Protonymphidia

senta

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Rhetus

periander

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Riodina

lysippus

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Sarota

gyas

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Semomesia

capanea

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Semomesia

marisa

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Stalachtis

calliope

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Synargis

galena

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Synargis

orestessa

 

 

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